Cancer from A to Z

Types of cancer, how to prevent them, diagnosis and treatment.


Brain cancer

Primary brain cancer starts within the substance of the brain, spinal cord or nerves. Some tumors which arise from the brain or spine coverings (meninges) are also considered primary brain tumors. Metastatic brain tumors have spread from cancer in other parts of the body, most frequently from the lungs, breast and colon.

The overall lifetime risk of getting a brain tumor is less than 1%.There are many different types of brain tumors, based on what cells are affected and how they appear under a microscope. Tumors can be classified into four general categories:

These tumors occur in the glial cells, which help support and protect critical areas of the brain. Gliomas are the most common type of brain tumor in adults, responsible for about 42% of all adult brain tumors. Gliomas are further characterized by the types of cells they affect:

Astrocytoma: Star-shaped cells that protect neurons. Tumors of these cells can spread from the primary site to other areas of the brain, but rarely spread outside the central nervous system. Astrocytomas are graded from I to IV depending on the speed of progression:

Grade I (pilocytic astrocytoma): Slow growing, with little tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain tissue. Most common in children and adolescents.

Grade II (diffuse astrocytoma): Fairly slow-growing, with some tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain tissue. Mostly seen in young adults.

Grade III (anaplastic/malignant astrocytoma): These tumors grow rather quickly and infiltrate surrounding brain tissue.

Grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM): An extremely aggressive and lethal form of brain cancer. Unfortunately, it is the most common form of brain tumor in adults, accounting for 67% of all astrocytomas.

Oligodendroglioma: These cells make myelin, a fatty substance that forms a protective sheath around nerve cells. Oligodendrogliomas, which make up 4% of brain tumors, mostly affect people over 45 years of age. Some subtypes of this tumor are particularly sensitive to treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Half of patients with oligodendrogliomas are still alive after five years.

Ependymoma: These tumors affect ependymal cells, which line the pathways that carry cerebrospinal fluid throughout the brain and spinal cord. Ependymomas are rare and make up 2% of all brain tumors, however they are the most common brain tumor in children. They generally don’t affect healthy brain tissue and don’t spread beyond the ependyma. Although these tumors respond well to surgery, particularly those on the spine, ependymomas cannot always be completely removed. The five-year survival rate for patients over age 45 approaches 70%.

These tumors affect the meninges, the tissue that forms the protective outer covering of the brain and spine. One-quarter of all brain and spinal tumors are meningiomas, and up to 85% of them are benign. Meningiomas can occur at any age, but the incidence increases significantly in people over age 65. Women are twice as likely as men to have meningiomas. They generally grow very slowly and often don’t produce any symptoms. In fact, many meningiomas are discovered by accident. Meningiomas can be successfully treated with surgery, but some patients, particularly the elderly, may be candidates for watchful waiting to monitor the disease.

Acoustic Neuroma / Schwannomas
Schwann’s cells are found in the sheath that covers nerve cells. Vestibular schwannomas, also known as acoustic neuromas, arise from the 8th cranial nerve, which is responsible for hearing. Specific symptoms of vestibular schwannoma include buzzing or ringing in the ears, one-sided hearing loss and/or balance problems. Schwannomas are typically benign and respond well to surgery.

This a common brain tumor in children, usually diagnosed before the age of 10. Medulloblastoma occurs in the cerebellum, which has a crucial role in coordinating muscular movements. Some experts believe that medulloblastomas arise from fetal cells that remain in the cerebellum after birth. Tumors grow quickly and can invade neighboring portions of the brain, as well as spreading outside the central nervous system. Medulloblastoma is slightly more common in boys.

Depending on the location and size of the tumor, brain cancer and brain tumorsymptoms experienced by each patient may vary. Most of the common symptoms are due to increased intracranial pressure as the growing tumoraffects surrounding structures:

  • Frequent headaches (reported by 50% of patients)
  • Blurry vision
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Personality or cognitive changes

Other brain cancer and brain tumor symptoms are site-specific, including seizures, speech impairment, weakness or numbness on one side and problems with coordination, balance or mobility.


At this moment there are no events of Brain cancer


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Clinical trials
Ensayo de fase 1a/2a, abierto y multicéntrico, para investigar la seguridad, tolerabilidad y actividad antitumoral de dosis repetidas de Sym015, una mezcla de anticuerpos monoclonales dirigida frente al receptor MET, en pacientes con tumores malignos sólidos en fase avanzada
Estudio fase IIIB, prospectivo, randomizado, abierto que evalúa la eficacia y seguridad de Heparina/Edoxaban versus Dalteparina en tromboembolismo venoso asociado con cáncer.
Tumores sólidos. Antiemesis Estudio fase III, multicéntrico, aleatorizado, doble ciego, con control activo para evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de Rolapitant en la prevención de náuseas y vómitos por la quimioterapia (NVIQ) en pacientes que reciben quimioterapia altamente emética (QAE). A phase III, multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of the safety and efficacy of Rolapitant for the treatment of Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in subjects receiving highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy (HEC)
Ensayo clínico en fase I de determinación de dosis del antiangiogénico multidiana Dovitinib (TKI258) más paclitaxel en pacientes con tumores sólidos.

Most brain tumors are sporadic, meaning they have no known cause. However, there are some risk factors that have been studied.

Radiation exposure: people exposed to large doses of radiation either on the job or as a cancer treatment may be at increased risk.

Genetic syndromes: people with von Hippel Lindau disease or neurofibromatosis type 2 may be more susceptible to developing brain tumors.

Cell phone use: a number of small studies have failed to prove any definitive connection between cell phones and brain tumors.

Currently, there are no blood tests or screening exams in place to detect brain tumors before they start causing symptoms. Tumors are typically found only after a person starts experiencing associated symptoms. A patient's survival chances are determined in most cases not by how early the disease is detected, but rather by the patient’s age, type of tumor and its location. But, as with any disease, the earlier problems are detected and treated, the more helpful treatment is likely to be.

Although many brain tumors can easily be seen with a CT scan or MRI, a stereotactic biopsy is sometimes needed to confirm the diagnosis and type of tumor. A special frame is attached to the patient’s head and adjusted to the tumor coordinates provided by a CT scan or other image of the brain. A small hole is drilled into the skull and a needle is inserted to obtain a sample of the tumor for inspection under a microscope. Advances in imaging technology have allowed stereotactic biopsies to be done without the frame.

Surgery is the most common treatment for brain tumors. However, with more aggressive brain cancers, complete removal of the tumor is not possible, and surgery is done to “debulk” or reduce the tumor as much as possible. Surgery may be combined with radiation therapy or followed with chemotherapy to destroy any remaining cancer cells.

The following types of radiation therapy are used with this disease:

  • Virtual CT Simulation
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)
  • Radiosurgery