Barrett’s Esophagus is a condition defined by the presence of metaplastic columnar epithelium replacing squamous epithelium in the esophagus. This histological change is the result of prolonged gastroesophageal reflux (gastroesophageal reflux disease – GERD). One the characteristics of Barrett’s Esophagus is that it increases the risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma, a neoplasia with increased incidence in the west and associated with a negative prognosis in its advanced stages. It is estimated that the annual incidence of adenocarcinoma among the population with Barrett’s Esophagus is from 0.1%-2%, 30 times higher than for the general population.
Barrett’s Esophagus is particularly common among white men, with a certain degree of obesity and a history of prolonged pyrosis (gastroesophageal reflux disease). Detecting Barrett’s Esophagus is particularly important to be able to carry out adequate long-term monitoring and to detect the first forms of dysplasia/adenocarcinoma early by means of a gastroscopy. In recent years, endoscopic treatment techniques have been developed for early forms of dysplasia/adenocarcinoma on Barrett’s Esophagus, allowing the complete cure of the disease and a reduction of the posterior risk of developing new neoplasias. Among these techniques, and of particular interest, are endoscopic mucosectomy and radiofrequency endoscopic ablation.